NOTE: In references (irrespective of the issue number), quotation marks are not used to identify the title of articles unless the text requires it for clarification. For example, an encyclopedia entry on a person should be in quote marks so it does not look like an article by that person, e.g. ‘Stuart, Arthur M.’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 12th edition, 21:423, 1992.
Use only the name of the city to identify the place of the publisher unless it is very obscure or there could be confusion with another city of the same name, then add state and/or country (whatever is necessary to properly clarify).
Riker, D., Editing on Earth, Reader’s Health, Sydney, p. 238, 1980.
Terence, C.H. and Stripes, T.R., The Discovery of Genesis, Aussie Vigor Publishing House, Brisbane, 1999.
Barts, S.E., Roberts Jr, B.E., Halifax, E. and Carson, K., The Redundancy of Repeated Words, John Cooper and Sons, New York, p. 32, 1958.
Heculan, J., translated from the Finnish by Uma Carryman, The Search for Good Writing, Harriet J. Simms Inc., New York, p. 258, 1982.
Aetheridge, c. 450 BC, The Histories, translated by Simon Uveratch, c. 1858, Lincoln, S. (Ed.), Ryan L. Suter Co. Inc., Rutland, Vermont, p. 32 (IV, 88), first published 1981, reprinted 2006.
no comma is needed between a book/article title and the publisher’s name if the book/article title in question itself ends with a question mark or exclamation mark.
Service, A.B. and Greenfields, O.G., Ways to make your business writing more readable; in: Longman U.V. (Ed.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Copywriting, The Writing Fellowship of Australia, Sydney, pp. 14–18, 2011.
Grammar Update, ABC (Australia) News Radio, 2 March 2002.
Example 1 (publication date available): Greenslade, A., Fantasy Women: The literary roots of phallocentrism in modern fantasy computer games, http://www.australianebookpublisher.com/ourbooks.html, 15 March 2008.
Example 2 (no publication date available): Greenslade, A., Fantasy Women: The literary roots of phallocentrism in modern fantasy computer games, http://www.australianebookpublisher.com/ourbooks.html, as at 10 April 2011.
In the case of well-known encylopedias such as Britannica and Collier, there is no need to put publisher.
Abbreviations of journal titles are allowable provided they are very clear and consistent in the article.
Quiorn, D., Editing for a Living, International Writer 168(2):182, 1985.
Weir, C., Writing their way to freedom, Time 9(3):50–51, 1992.
Valley, R.C. and Pereira, H.G., Antigens and structure of the adenovirus, J. Mol. Biol. 13(43):13–20, 1965.
Pickson, K.S., Dan, B. and Roslin, L., Exterminating bad English, Journal of Creative Writing16(2):281–291, 2008.
Overman, M.J., Picking the Right Genre, Writing Res. Soc. Quart. 21(2):47–56, 1995.
Hiker, H., The need for flexibility with language online, Letters to the editor, Journal of Editing16(1):2–8, 2007.
The Sydney Morning Herald, 4 May1995, p. 3.
Going, going, gone. Books are going online, The Courier-Mail, Brisbane, 3 August 1998, p. 875.
1 John 2:1–11; Luke 8:22–25; Matthew 8:19, 33.
When referencing papers, more than three authors may be cited as first author et al., as long as the writer is consistent. However, there may be times when it might be appropriate to cite more than three authors (for example, when the research leader is listed last), in which case they would all be individually listed.
Uttman, I.B. et al., Structure of writing: Memoirs, Creative Writing Magazine 370(649):621–628, 1994; comment by Shuster, G.K., How to start a memoir, same issue, pp. 594–595.
Bangle, Q.C., Stringing words together, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1996. Reviewed by Callum, T.G., Journal of Creative Writing 11(3):283–291, 1997. See also Diamond, M., Ways With Words, <www.madeupwebaddress.com>, 23 April 2003.
Roper, O., in Vizard P., Juniper Books, Basel, Switzerland, p. 245, (date if available); quoted in Matthews, O. and nine others, Novel structure with selection of chapters, Science of Writing780(5363):578–582, 1998.
Thorne, D.W., Grammar: an Introduction, Moonlight Press, Chicago, Ch. 1, p. 171, 1989. Thorne wrote, ‘When I was at the 4th World Congress on Writing in London in 1978, I found that the only writers who were opposed to using editors were those of little writing skill.’
Avers and others have pointed out that the English skills of Queensland’s Generation Z: ‘… are stunted by their habit of using slang words and abbreviations in mobile devices and on the internet.’ Robertson, A.M., The changing nature of language and its potential for disaster, Language 89(1): 28–31, 1991.
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